The spoliation of the churches property, the fraudulent alienation of the
State domains, the robbery of the common lands, the usurpation of feudal and clan property, and its transformation into modern private property under circumstances of reckless terrorism, were just so many idyllic methods of
The whole of language is a continuous process of metaphor, and the history of semantics is an aspect of the history of culture; language is at the same time a living thing and a museum of fossils of life and civilisations
Common sense asserts the objectivity of the real in so far as reality, the world, has been created by God independently of and before humanity; reality is, therefore, an expression of the mythological conception of the world… in describing this objectivity, common sense falls into the crudest errors—it is still to a great extent at the Ptolemaic astronomy stage, not knowing how to determine the real connections of cause and effect…that is, it calls ‘objective’ a certain anachronistic ‘subjectivity’ since it is not even able to conceive that a subjective conception of the world might exist and what that could or might mean
'Objective’ means this and only this: that one asserts to be objective, to be objective reality, that reality which is ascertained by all, which is independent of any merely particular or group standpoint. […] this too is a particular conception of the world, an ideology [...] if scientific truths themselves are not conclusive and unchallengeable, then science too is a historical category, a movement in continual development
being cannot be separated from thinking, humanity from nature, activity from matter,
subject from object; if one carries out this separation, one falls into one of the many forms
of religion or into senseless abstraction
if human beings on the one hand, and plants and animals on the other,
can be regarded alternately as components of each others' environments... we can no longer think of humans as inhabiting a social world of their own, over and above the world of nature in which the lives of all other living things are contained. Rather, both humans and the animals and plants on which they depend for a livelihood must be regarded as fellow participants in the same world, a world that is at once social and natural. And the forms that all these creatures take are neither given in advance nor imposed from above, but emerge within the context of their mutual involvement in a single, continuous field of relationships.
the world can only exist as nature for a being that does not belong there
But we cannot understand this process, indeed cannot even describe it, until we are clear as to what the idea of nature includes, and in particular whether it includes man. For, of course, to speak of man 'intervening' in natural processes is to suppose that he might find it possible not to do so, or to decide not to do so. Nature has to be thought of, that it is to say, as separate from man...But once we begin to speak of men mixing their labour with the earth, we are in a whole world of new relations between man and nature, and to separate natural history from social history becomes extremely problematic.
the exercise of power and the securing of domination ultimately
depends...on the equation of popular consent. This is consent, not simply to the
interests and purposes but also to the interpretations and representations of
social reality generated by those who control the mental, as well as the
material, means of social reproduction
To denounce hierarchy does not get us anywhere. What must be changed are the conditions that make this hierarchy exist, both in reality and in minds.